Testing is among the most important aspects of the development process and helps ensure product quality. The results show how the product will withstand the effects of time. Also, how will it differ from when it was made, and can the product be expected to meet its goal. And most importantly, is the product constructed in accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer? In this article, we will look at the different equipment and equipment being used to test the quality of various fabrics being evaluated.
On a recent trip to a laboratory for textiles, I was awestruck by the variety of tests that an excellent fabric must be able to pass before it can be made into apparel. Here is the complete information about the testing tools used in the testing lab.
Tester of bursting strength
This test can be used as an overall guideline to measure the quality of any type of fabric. It is performed by placing the fabric in a mold by applying pressure at the base of the fabric. Then, at the point of threshold, it will explode. The parameters like time, speed, and severity are recorded after the material explodes. The strength of the explosion is typically stated in the kPa range.
The test equipment is made to determine the colorfastness of any fabric material caused by the rubbing. It measures the amount of color transferred from one surface of a fabric to the next. It is typically done with fabric materials like those that are printed, dyed, or colored in any way. The test is performed by rubbing the test sample against an uncolored sample. The dye is evaluated against a specified grayscale, with the result then assigned. This test is performed at two different levels of the fabric. Once when it is dry and then when wet. The result will vary with various dyes and fabrics used for the test.
The testing of fabrics using a weather meter is among the most sought-after tests currently being conducted in the field. It is based on the concept of speeded-up aging that is produced artificially within the machine. A couple of minutes inside the machine will show an exact period of environmental changes absorbed from the cloth. A mixture of artificial light (UV light) and heat, as well as specific filters, extremely controlled radiations, atmospheric conditions (temperature and humidity), and the cycle of light, dark, and wet conditions can be produced within the machine. Results can then be evaluated to the original sample for modifications and graded accordingly.
Tester for digital box pilling
It is among the most frequently required tests by the fabric. It mimics the pilling or snagging of fabrics caused by normal wear and tear. The machine’s interior is constructed of cork, with moderate abrasion. The samples are allowed for a few minutes to rub the fabric, which results in the development of the pill. After the test, the fabric is inspected, and grading is done, starting from very fragile pill formation to a severe pill formation in relation to previously determined pilled samples or photographs. The frequency and duration of the cycles can vary for different kinds of fabrics and requirements for the order. The process is mostly used for knitted fabrics.
It is a tool for laboratory use designed to perform accelerated laundering and dyeing tests. It is a tool for drying, dry-cleaning detergency, as well as other tests in the laboratory. Within the container, parameters such as temperatures, mechanically agitation, and so on can be recorded and controlled for efficient testing and grade. This is extremely useful since it allows you to visualize the various washing conditions required for various fabrics.
Test the spray
It is a testing device that can be used to determine the water resistance of a sample fabric. In order to test, a tiny amount of water will be sprayed on the fabric, which is held at a specific angle. The quantity of water retained and absorbed into the fabric is measured, and the results are compared to a pre-determined rating chart, which is then assessed.
Perspiration is typically the reason for the changes in the hue of the fabrics. It is a testing device that can be used to measure the durability of color in fabric dyed or printed against sweating caused by ocean water, water from the sea, etc., and sublimation during storage. This is accomplished by exposure of the fabric sample to actions of both alkaline and acidic medium at a set pressure and temperature, along with an uncolored sample. The speed is determined by comparing the samples with an opaque shade card.
Tester of strength for tears
The tear strength is the force required to tear a pre-slit fabric sample in controlled conditions. It is determined by measuring the effort put in during the process of tearing the fabric over a pre-determined distance. The strength of the tear can be measured as newton(N) (N) or centinewton(CN). The device is comprised of a pendulum with an elongated clamp and is aligned using a fixed clamp. The process starts by elevating the pendulum. After raising the pendulum, the sample is placed between the clamps. When the pendulum is released, the fabric tears at the already slitted point as the moving clamp is removed towards the stationary clamp. The pointer is attached to the pendulum, which can be graduated to detect the force of tearing directly.
GSM refers to Gram per Square Meter. As the name implies, it is the method of determining the fabric’s weight, which includes knit and woven fabrics as well as non-woven. It is a basic instrument that can be used to cut a sample of fabric to calculate the gsm that the cloth. The cutting width of the sample is 11.2 centimeters. After cutting, the fabric sample is weighed and determined for GSM.
Tester for the recovery of Crease
The appearance of fabric with creases when it wears is not ideal in terms of the appearance of it. The device is comprised of an oblong scale that measures the recovery angle and an upper and lower stand where the fabric is placed. The fabric is first created and left to rest for a minute. Then, the angle of recovery is measured. The greater the angle at which the fabric recovers, the higher the resistance to creasing. This happens in the warp and weft direction. The parameters like the load (for creating the samples), the creasing process’s duration, and recovery time can be changed for various scenarios.
It is a basic instrument that measures the size of the cloth. At present, all these instruments use digital. placing the fabric in between an anvil as well as the pressure foot will reveal the thickness of the fabric as measured on the screen. This is expressed in millimeters (mm).
An extensometer device measures any length change of fabric samples stretched or recovered from the stretch. It is a method that can be utilized for knitted and woven fabrics. The instrument is comprised of a loading frame that includes clamps and a tension device for screws together with various weights that are used to apply elastic stretch on the samples. The elasticity of the fabric, which is among the main characteristics of the fabric, is assessed at various extensions. be measured using this instrument.
Sublimation test for fastness
A Sublimation Martindale abrasion tester is a device that is used to test the speed of ironing as well as sublimation color fastness and dimensional stability in temperatures that are hot and dry. The temperature of the heating plate and test timings can be adjusted based on the needs. The sample preparation could be performed with only yarn, fibers, or fabrics. Results are examined and scored based on grey cards to assess the coloration of the original sample as well as the staining level in white cotton.
Light speed test
Colorfastness or light fastness to light is the ability of the pigments or dyes that are used for coloration to fade or change color when exposed to bright sunlight or from any other light sources. Different applications for the fabrics will have different requirements for sensitivity to light. Since artificial light cannot be controlled or replicated in a laboratory setting, xenon arc light is employed to mimic UV as well as visible solar radiation. It is also the most effective method to simulate the accelerated photoaging of a textile sample. It also determines the degree of color fastness using an image of a shade card.
Shrinkage is a negative characteristic of a fabric, where the size of the fabric shrinks when it is washed. This is due to the tension that is created in yarns as a result of weaving. In the case of the shrinkage test, it is necessary to cut the sample out of an outlined template size. The fabric is washed in controlled conditions. The fabric is then dried, and the difference in size is determined using the formula
Testing is conducted in both weft-wise and warp-wise directions. The results are recorded, and the average is determined to ensure the most exact outcome.
Mace is a snagging tester
Mace snag testers are test apparatus that is used to measure the potential of the fabric to be snagged (pull yarn loops off the fabric) in normal wear. It is outfitted with mace ball spikes that are snagged by rollers that fabrics are sleeved. The number of rotations can be set based on the fabric as well as the requirements. The fabric that is finally grabbed is evaluated and compared by the different snagged levels.
Chamber for cold impact
Most of the fabric, when exposed to extremely cold temperatures for a long time, exhibits changes in its physical properties. The changes are evident when the fabric is made to become hard and fragile. The testing equipment was designed to investigate the effects of extreme cold temperatures on fabrics made of textiles as the machine can reach temperatures that is as low as 400 C.