Glycation (or glycosylation that is not a process of enzymes) within our bodies may be a new concept for fitness professionals however, it is one that affects everyone of us to different extents. We can instruct our clients on the fundamentals, and help them understand the ways that being aware of certain eating practices can reduce the negative effect of glycosylation.

Learning about Glycation, Health and Impairment

Glycosylation is a process in the presence of a carbohydrate i.e. glycosyl donor is linked to an functional group, such as hydroxyl, of a different molecule to create glycoconjugate. In the field of biology, glycosylation is usually referred to an enzyme-catalyzed process while glycation could be a non-enzymatic process. Check out the best Gyms in San Diego to improve your health!

Glycosylation is a process that occurs at certain locations within the target molecule and is necessary for the target cell to perform its function. According to definitions: “glycosylation is an important and tightly controlled mechanism for secondary protein processing in cells. It is a crucial factor in determining the structure of proteins, their function and its stability.”»

Glycation on the contrary is the result of the sugar molecule like fructose or glucose, forming bonds with the lipid or protein molecule without the control by an enzyme. It will cause hormonal imbalances and disruption of homeostasis which leads to poor health.

Glycation may occur within your organism (endogenous Glycation) or out of the human body (exogenous glycocation). Glycation is a random process of sugar-bonding to proteins and lipids that hinders the functionality of biomolecules. Colin Actually, Tyler J. Stewart. The role of glycosylation Health and Disease. Nature review Nephrology 15, 346-366. March 2019[PDF].

Endogenous Glycation                                   

Endogenous glycation takes place in the bloodstream, accompanied by absorbed simple sugars such as fructose, glucose, and galactose. Glycation is a tiny portion of the sugars absorbed along with the remainder of the sugars utilized for metabolic processes. Galactose and fructose possess ten times the glycation capacity of glucose. Therefore, the taking these two forms of sugars will enhance the capacity of the endogenous glycocation.

Exogenous Glycation (Dietary Sources)

Food producers add Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) to food items, especially over the past 50 years, as flavor enhancers as well as colorants to enhance the appearance of food items. These include but aren’t restricted to, barbecued meats, donuts, cake or dark-colored soda.

Another example is adding sugar to foods like french fries to increase the browning. The sugars are cooked in fats or proteins with temperatures around 120o C (~248o F). The process of cooking sugars causes glycation, which causes the formation of acrylamide (a known carcinogen). Foods that have significant carmelization, browning, or with AGEs added directly are known to be proinflammatory and induce disease. When ingested, the glycation-related products are absorbable with a minimum of 30 percent effectiveness.

Age’s and the disease

Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are the modifications of proteins or lipids which are not enzyme-mediated glycated and then oxidized in bloodstreams after exposure to aldose sugars. The red blood cells after being processed into hemoglobin glycated (HbA1c) that can cause Type I and Type II diabetes.

Red blood cells undergo a turnover that is 120 days. Other cells with a longer life like nerves and brain cells that are impacted by glycation develop significant damage over the course of time. The removal of glycated end products is 30% of the material eliminated through kidneys, which makes damage to cells likely.

Enhance Health Outcomes

Scientists have devised a technique to break cross-links between proteins that are glycated. However they can control AGEs and/or avoided through using Pyridoxamine. Pyridoxamine can be described as a variant that is a component of vitamin pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). Contrary to the normal version of B6, pyridoxamine does not cause peripheral neuropathy, as do the large amounts of Vitamin B6. Both vitamin B6 and pyridoxamine are metabolized to pyridoxal-5-phosphate.

Pyridoxamine can be found naturally in walnuts, chicken eggs, chicken as well as other foods. Pryidoxal-5-phosphate can be purchased without prescription.


Non-enzyme glycosylation, also known as glycosylation, occurs in food manufacturing exogenously and also in the body through the random combination of sugars with proteins and/or the formation of AGEs, which hinder biomolecules’ function. Galactose and fructose have 10 times the glycation capacity of glucose. AGEs can cause Type I and Type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases as well as neuropathies, dementia and organ dysfunction; and result in the disruption of biochemical processes within the body, which can lead to the impairment of homeostasis.

Glycated protein cross-links can be broken naturally by a vitamer of vitamin B6 called pyridoxamine, which in the body is metabolized to pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Both pyridoxamine and pyridoxin-5-phosphate are available without prescription. The power of knowledge is in the mind. Sharing information about health with clients can help them make more informed choices regarding every aspect of their health.

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